English is spoken in many countries either as the mother tongue or as a second language. That’s why instead of “English” there are many “Englishes” — variations of the language. In this article I’ll focus on the two mostly commonly used versions of English — British and American English.
Before we take a look at some of the differences between the two main types of English I’d like to stress that these differences are somewhat minor and with the ongoing internationalization of our modern world they could even said to be diminishing.
The few differences that exist between British and American English tend rather to enrich communication than slow it down.
Although not all my British readers might agree, I think that the American version of spoken English is becoming more and more dominant for several reasons. Let me give you an example to show you why American English has a stronger impact on British English than vice versa.
When you go to the UK and switch on the TV you will see a lot of American shows, movies and films which, of course, are shown in the original, American version. Thus, especially young people watching TV will learn a lot of American vocabulary and phrases which they easily internalize and use as their own. It follows, modern British English is much more likely to be influenced by American English than the other way round because when you live in the US and watch TV you rarely will see a British show or film.
Another area where US English dominates is international business. Most globally operating companies are based in the US and hence the influence of American English terminology is very strong.
However, as with any issue, the more you think about it, the more variations you will encounter and it would be impossible to cover them all in one article.
That’s why we’ll move on now to the differences between British and American English. Instead of giving you a comprehensive rundown of all imaginable items I’ll limit myself to a small selection of my personal observations.
When it comes to different spellings there isn’t really that much to say because in the near future the world will more or less agree on one uniform version.
British English has a tendency to keep the spelling of many words of French origin whereas Americans try to spell more closely to the way they pronounce words and they remove letters not needed, which makes sense to me.
Here are some examples:
|British English||American English|
|to practise (verb)||to practice (verb)|
|practice (noun)||practice (verb)|
Again, these are in my opinion examples for the most important spelling differences between British and American English. Of course, there are more of them and the purpose of this article is not to elaborate on orthography but to raise your awareness of the subject so you can make your own observations and draw conclusions.
Written by : Rizki
|Parent company||University of Oxford|
|Country of origin||United Kingdom|
|Publication types||Books, Journals, Sheet music|
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the Vice-Chancellor known as the Delegates of the Press. They are headed by the Secretary to the Delegates, who serves as OUP’s chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee the Press since the 17th century.
The university became involved in the print trade around 1480, and grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, and scholarly works. Its Press took on the project which became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, and expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work. As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children’s books, school text books, music, journals, the World’s Classics series, and a best-selling range of English Language Teaching texts to match its academic and religious titles. Moves into international markets led to the Press opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and increasingly harsh trading conditions, the Press’s printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, and its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern Press publishes some 6,000[4500 or 6000?] new titles around the world each year. As part of a charitable organization, OUP is committed to major financial support of its parent university, and furthers the university’s aims of excellence in scholarship, research, and education through its publishing activities.
OUP was first exempted from US Corporation Tax in 1972 and from UK Corporation Tax in 1978. As a department of a charity, OUP is exempt from income tax and corporate tax in most countries, but may pay sales and other commercial taxes on its products. The Press today transfers 30% of its annual surplus to the rest of the University, with a commitment to a minimum transfer of £12 million per annum. OUP is the largest university press in the world by the number of publications, publishing more than 4,500[4500 or 6000?] new books every year and employing some 4,000 people. OUP publishes many reference, professional, and academic works including the Oxford English Dictionary, the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, the Oxford World’s Classics, the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, and the Concise Dictionary of National Biography. A number of its most important titles are now available electronically in a package called “Oxford Reference Online”, and are offered free to holders of a reader’s card or other subscribing institutions (e.g., universities, colleges, etc.) worldwide.
Books published by Oxford have International Standard Book Numbers that begin with 0-19, making the Press one of a tiny number of publishers who have two-digit identification numbers in the ISBN system. By internal agreement, the first digit of the individual edition number (following 0-19-) can indicate a particular originating division, for example: 3 for music (before ISMNs were defined); 5 for the New York office; 8 for Clarendon Press publications.
Written by : Rizki
PARIS, April 11,2007 — When economics students returned this winter to the elite École Normale Supérieure here, copies of a simple one-page petition were posted in the corridors demanding an unlikely privilege: French as a teaching language.
“We understand that economics is a discipline, like most scientific fields, where the research is published in English,” the petition read, in apologetic tones. But it declared that it was unacceptable for a native French professor to teach standard courses to French-speaking students in the adopted tongue of English.
In the shifting universe of global academia, English is becoming as commonplace as creeping ivy and mortarboards. In the last five years, the world’s top business schools and universities have been pushing to make English the teaching tongue in a calculated strategy to raise revenues by attracting more international students and as a way to respond to globalization.
Business universities are driving the trend, partly because changes in international accreditation standards in the late 1990s required them to include English-language components. But English is also spreading to the undergraduate level, with some South Korean universities offering up to 30 percent of their courses in the language. The former president of Korea University in Seoul sought to raise that share to 60 percent, but ultimately was not re-elected to his post in December.
In Madrid, business students can take their admissions test in English for the elite Instituto de Empresa and enroll in core courses for a master’s degree in business administration in the same language. The Lille School of Management in France stopped considering English a foreign language in 1999, and now half the postgraduate programs are taught in English to accommodate a rising number of international students.
Over the last three years, the number of master’s programs offered in English at universities with another host language has more than doubled, to 3,300 programs at 1,700 universities, according to David A. Wilson, chief executive of the Graduate Management Admission Council, an international organization of leading business schools that is based in McLean, Va.
“We are shifting to English. Why?” said Laurent Bibard, the dean of M.B.A. programs at Essec, a top French business school in a suburb of Paris that is a fertile breeding ground for chief executives.
“It’s the language for international teaching,” he said. “English allows students to be able to come from anyplace in the world and for our students — the French ones — to go everywhere.”
This year the university is celebrating its 100th anniversary in its adopted tongue. Its new publicity film debuted in English and French. Along one of the main roads leading into Paris loomed a giant blue billboard boasting of the anniversary in French and, in smaller letters, in English.
Essec has also taken advantage of the increased revenue that foreign students — English-speaking ones — can bring in. Its population of foreign students has leapt by 38 percent in four years, to 909 today out of a student body of 3,700.
The tuition for a two-year master’s degree in business administration is 19,800 euros for European Union citizens, and 34,000 euros for non-EU citizens.
“The French market for local students is not unlimited,” said Christophe N. Bredillet, the associate dean for the Lille School of Management’s M.B.A. and postgraduate programs. “Revenue is very important, and in order to provide good services, we need to cover our expenses for the library and research journals. We need to cover all these things with a bigger number of students so it’s quite important to attract international students.”
With the jump in foreign students, Essec now offers 25 percent of its 200 courses in English. Its ambition is to accelerate the English offerings to 50 percent in the next three years.
Santiago Iñiguez de Ozoño, dean of the Instituto de Empresa, argues that the trend is a natural consequence of globalization, with English functioning as Latin did in the 13th century as the lingua franca most used by universities.
“English is being adapted as a working language, but it’s not Oxford English,” he said. “It’s a language that most stakeholders speak.” He carries out conversation on a blog, deanstalk.net, in English.
But getting students to feel comfortable speaking English in the classroom is easier said than done. When younger French students at Essec start a required course in organizational analysis, the atmosphere is marked by long, uncomfortable silences, said Alan Jenkins, a management professor and academic director of the executive M.B.A. program.
“They are very good on written tasks, but there’s a lot of reticence on oral communication and talking with the teacher,” Dr. Jenkins said, adding that he used role-playing to encourage students to speak. He also refuses to speak in French. “I have to force myself to say, ‘Can you give me that in English?’ ”
Officials at Ewha Womans University in Seoul are also aware that they face a difficult task at the first stage of their Global 2010 project, which will require new students to take four classes in English, two under the tutelage of native English-speaking professors. The 120-year-old university has embarked on a hiring spree to attract 50 foreign professors.
At the beginning, “teaching courses in English may have less efficiency or effectiveness in terms of knowledge transfer than those courses taught in Korean,” said Anna Suh, program manager for the university’s office of global affairs, who said that students eventually see the benefits. “Our aim for this kind of program is to prepare and equip our students to be global leaders in this new era of internationalization.”
The Lille management school is planning to open a satellite business school program next fall in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, where the working language will also be in English.
“Internationally, the competition is everywhere,” Dr. Bredillet said. “For a master’s in management, I’m competing with George Washington University. I’m competing with some programs in Germany, Norway and the U.K. That’s why we’re delivering the curriculum in English.”
Written by : Rizki
TEFL that uses literature aimed at children and teenagers is rising in popularity. Youth-oriented literature offers simpler material (“simplified readers” are produced by major publishers), and often provides a more conversational style than literature for adults. Children’s literature in particular sometimes provides subtle cues to pronunciation, through rhyming and other word play. One method for using these books is the multiple-pass technique. The instructor reads the book, pausing often to explain certain words and concepts. On the second pass, the instructor reads the book completely through without stopping.
Communicative language teaching
Communicative language teaching (CLT) emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language. Despite a number of criticisms, it continues to be popular, particularly in Japan, Taiwan, and Europe.
The task-based language learning (TBLL) approach to CLT has gained ground in recent years. Proponents believe CLT is important for developing and improving speaking, writing, listening, and reading skills, and that it prevents students’ merely listening passively to the teacher without interaction. “Dogme” is a similar communicative approach that encourages teaching without published textbooks, instead focusing on conversational communication among the learners and the teacher.
Blended learning is a combination of face-to-face teaching and online interactions (also known as CALL or computer-assisted language learning), achieved through a virtual learning environment (VLE).
VLEs have been a major growth point in the ELT industry or over the last five years. There are two types:
- Externally-hosted platforms that a school or institution exports content to (e.g., the proprietary Web Course Tools, or the open source Moodle)
- Content-supplied, course-managed learning platforms (e.g. the Macmillan English Campus)
The former provides pre-designed structures and tools, while the latter supports course-building by the language school—teachers can blend existing courses with games, activities, listening exercises, and grammar reference units contained online. This supports classroom, self-study or remote practice (for example in an internet café).
Written by : Rizki
|Nama lengkap||Real Madrid Club de Fútbol|
|Julukan||Los Blancos (Tim Putih)
Los Merengues (Tim Meringue)
Los Vikingos (Tim Viking)
|Didirikan||6 Maret 1902 (110 tahun silam) sebagai Madrid Club de Fútbol|
|Stadion||Stadion Santiago Bernabéu,
|Presiden kehormatan||Alfredo Di Stéfano|
|Pelatih kepala||José Mourinho|
Real Madrid Club de Fútbol (pelafalan dalam bahasa Spanyol: [reˈal maˈðɾið ˈkluβ ðe ˈfutβol]), atau biasa dikenal dengan nama Real Madrid saja, adalah sebuah klub sepak bola profesional yang berbasis di kota Madrid, Spanyol. Didirikan pada 6 Maret 1902 dengan nama Madrid Club de Fútbol, tim ini menggunakan gelar Real (“dari kerajaan”) setelah Raja Alfonso XIII dari Spanyol memberikan izin resmi kepada klub tersebut pada Juni 1920. Real Madrid telah bermain di Divisi Utama Liga Spanyol (Primera División) yang disebut sebagai La Liga sejak awal kompetisi ini dimulai, tahun 1928, dan merupakan klub tersukses di Spanyol berdasarkan jumlah trofi juara yang telah mereka raih.Bersama FC Barcelona dan Athletic Bilbao, klub ini menjadi salah satu klub yang belum pernah terdegradasi ke divisi bawah. Klub ini juga merupakan salah satu klub terbaik abad ke-20 menurut FIFA. Mereka telah meraih 31 gelar La Liga, 18 gelar Copa del Rey, 8 Piala Super Spanyol, 9 gelar Piala Champions/Liga Champions UEFA, 2 Piala UEFA, 1 Piala Super Eropa, dan 3 Piala Interkontinental.
Kostum tradisional Real Madrid adalah putih-putih, sehingga dijuluki Los merengues (Tim putih). Stadion kandangnya adalah Stadion Santiago Bernabéu yang berkapasitas 80.354 penonton. Real Madrid sendiri memiliki rivalitas cukup sengit terutama dengan Barcelona (dikenal sebagai El Clásico) dan klub sekota Atletico Madrid (dikenal sebagai El Derbi madrileño).
Sejak tahun 2000-an, Real Madrid dikenal sebagai tim yang gemar membeli pemain-pemain mahal berkelas dunia, sehingga diberikan julukan baru, yaitu Los Galácticos (tim galaksi). Klub ini juga dikenal sebagai salah satu klub terkaya di dunia, dengan penghasilan sebesar 438,6 juta Euro pada tahun 2011.Awal mula (1902-1945) Real Madrid dimulai saat sepak bola diperkenalkan ke Madrid oleh para akademisi dan mahasiswa dari Institución libre de enseñanza yang di dalamnya termasuk beberapa lulusan dari Universitas Oxford dan Universitas Cambridge. Mereka mendirikan Football Club Sky pada 1897 yang kemudian kerap bermain sepak bola secara rutin pada hari Minggu pagi di Moncloa. Klub ini kemudian terpecah menjadi dua pada tahun 1900, yaitu: New Foot-Ball de Madrid dan Club Español de Madrid. Klub terakhir terpecah lagi pada tahun 1902 yang kemudian menghasilkan pembentukan Madrid Football Club pada tanggal 6 Maret 1902.Tiga tahun setelah berdirinya, pada tahun 1905, Madrid FC merebut gelar pertama setelah mengalahkan Athletic Bilbao pada final Copa del Rey. Klub ini menjadi salah satu anggota pendiri dari Federasi Sepak Bola Kerajaan Spanyol pada 4 Januari 1909 ketika presiden klub Adolfo Meléndez menandatangani perjanjian dasar pendirian Asosiasi Sepak Bola Kerajaan Spanyol. Dengan beberapa alasan, klub ini kemudian pindah ke Campo de O’Donnell pada tahun 1912. Pada tahun 1920, nama klub diubah menjadi Real Madrid setelah Alfonso XIII dari Spanyol memperbolehkan klub menggunakan kata Real—yang berarti kerajaan—kepada klub ini.
Pada tahun 1929, Liga Spanyol didirikan. Real Madrid memimpin musim pertama liga sampai pertandingan terakhir, namun saat itu secara mengejutkan mereka kalah oleh Athletic Bilbao yang menyebabkan gelar yang sudah hampir pasti diraih, direbut oleh Barcelona.Real Madrid akhirnya berhasil memenangkan gelar La Liga pertama mereka pada musim 1931—32. Real kemudian berhasil mempertahankan gelarnya pada tahun selanjutnya dan sukses menjadi klub Spanyol pertama yang menjuarai La Liga dua kali berturut-turut.
Written by : Rizki
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